[Here we continue a reprint of a small portion of Joseph Caryl’s study in Job.  Mr. Caryl wrote twelve volumes on the book of Job.  His study is a great example of how deep one can dig into the truths of the Bible.]   A Study by Joseph Caryl (1644) Job 1:13-15 (part 2) - The Time of Affliction   13 And   there   was   a   day   when   his   sons   and   his   daughters   were   eating   and drinking   wine   in   their   eldest   brother’s   house: 14 And   there   came   a   messenger unto   Job,   and   said,   The   oxen   were   plowing,   and   the   asses   feeding   beside them. 15 And   the   Sabeans   fell   upon   them,   and   took   them   away;   yea,   they   have slain   the   servants   with   the   edge   of   the   sword;   and   I   only   am   escaped   alone   to tell thee. (KJV)   “And   the   Sabeans   fell   upon   them…”    –   The   Hebrew   is,   Saba   fell   upon   them,    the country   put   for   the   people:   Saba   for   the   Sabeans .   As   we   use   to   say,   Spain    made   war, and   France    made   war,   that   is,   the   Spaniards    made   war,   or   the   French    made   war,   so   it is such an expression; Saba  fell upon them, that is, the people inhabiting Saba . “…fell   upon   them…”    –   The   word   denotes   a   mighty   violence;   they   came   upon them   as   from   above;   they   came   powering   down   upon   them   like   a   storm.   There   is such   a   phrase   in   war,   when   they   go   violently   upon   a   place,   they   are   said   to   storm the   place,   to   storm   the   gates   of   a   castle   or   of   a   city;   so   here,   they   fell   upon   them,   that is,    they    came    violently    upon    them    like    a    storm.    In    Prov.    1:27,    destruction    is described to come upon wicked men like a whirlwind . The   Sabeans    were   a   people   (as   it   is   concluded   by   most   interpreters)   inhabiting Arabia   felix ,   near   the   country   where   Job   dwelt. And   for   the   manners   of   this   people,   it is   observed   by   historians,   that   they   were   a   people   famous   only   for   robberies,   a people   that   lived   by   pillage   and   by   plundering   of   their   neighbors.   Such   a   people they   were;   these   Sabeans    fell   upon   them,   they   took   away   thy   cattle,   and   have   slain   thy servants with the edge of the sword . Here   it   may   be   questioned:   how   or   why   these   Sabeans   at   such   a   time   should   fall upon   the   estate   of   Job?   What   hurt   had   Job   done   them?   Job   lived   in   a   fair   way   with all   his   neighbors,   and   kept   good   quarter   and   correspondence   with   them;   he   was   not a   man   of   war   or   contention.   How   then   comes   it   to   pass   that   these   fell   upon   Job’s estate and took it away, and upon that day too, in this nick of time? As   when   the   widow   of   Tekoah   had   told   a   fair   tale   to   David   about   the   bringing back   of   Absalom,   the   king   asked   her,   Is   not   the   hand   of   Joab   with   thee   in   all   this?    So when   you   see   such   men,   Sabeans   and   Chaldeans   falling   upon   the   estate   of   Job,   you may   demand,   Is   not   the   hand   of   Satan   in   all   this?    Yes,   no   doubt.   These   Sabeans   fell upon   Job’s   estate,   but   Satan   first   fell   upon   the   Sabeans,   and   by   strong   temptations provoked them to do this service. But   how   could   he   prevail   upon   the   Sabeans,   that   they   should   come   and   do   his business, now at this time? The   Apostle   tells   us,   that   wicked   men   are   led   captive   by   Satan   at   his   will   (see   II   Tim. 2:26) .     Satan    leads    men    captive    at    his    will,    while    they    are,    as    they    conceive, conquerors,   riding   in   triumph,   doing   their   own   will.   These   Sabeans   came   to   execute their   own   designs,   but   Satan   had   a   design   upon   them:   he   brought   them   thus   to spoil the estate of Job. But   what   could   Satan   do?   How   could   Satan   prevail   with   these?   Can   he   force   men to   be   his   instruments,   to   execute   his   designs   upon   the   people   of   God?   Or   has   he Sabeans and Chaldeans, nations and people at his beck, or under his command? No,   Satan   cannot   force   or   compel   them   against   their   wills,   but   as   that   scripture says,   he   leads   them   captive   at   his   will ;   and,   as   it   says   in   another   scripture,   he   is   a   prince of   the   power   of   the   air,   and   he   works   in   the   children   of   disobedience;    yea,   he   works   like   a prince,   mightily   and   powerfully   in   the   children   of   disobedience   (see   Eph.   2).   Though   he cannot constrain them, yet he can work mightily in them to effect what he has to do. But   how   does   he   bring   them   about   thus   readily   and   suddenly   to   act   what   he projects. Thus:   First,   he   finds   out   the   temper   and   disposition   of   the   persons.   That   Satan   can do.   He   is   a   great   naturalist ,   and   has   a   great   deal   of   help   to   his   skill,   long   experience , by   both   he   can   go   very   far   in   discovering   the   dispositions   of   men,   which   way   their spirits   tend;   and   he   found   out   that   these   Sabeans   were   a   people   given   to   robbery and   spoil,   and   so   fit   ministers   for   him   to   work   by   in   his   design   of   spoiling   the   estate of Job. Secondly,   when   he   found   out   the   natural   temper   or   state   of   a   man’s   heart,   he   can lay   a   bait   of   temptation   suitable   to   that   inclination   and   desire.   Finding   out   a   people given   to   spoil,   he   presently   sets   before   them   rich   spoils,   ripe   for   the   taking.   See, yonder   is   a   brave   prize   for   you;   yonder   is   a   rich   man;   his   estate   will   be   good plunder;   yonder   are   oxen   and   asses;   there’s   good   booty   to   be   had.   Thus   finding   out their disposition, he presents or holds up an object to them which hits it fully. Thirdly,   Satan   deals   with   man   to   draw   him   to   his   purpose   a   degree   further,   by injecting   and   casting   into   the   mind   the   motion   to   do   this.   He   not   only   presents such-and-such   a   thing,   such-and-such   an   opportunity,   but   he   casts   in   and   injects   the motion.   As   it   is   said   of   Judas,   that   the   devil   put   it   into   his   heart   betray   Christ    (John 13:2).   The   devil   being   a   spirit   has   access   to   our   spirits,   and   can   convey   himself   into them   and   instill   his   suggestions.   As   the   Lord   Christ   did   breathe   upon   his   disciples, and   so   they   received   the   Holy   Ghost   and   were   filled   with   the   Spirit,   so   Satan breathes   filthy   suggestions   into   the   spirits   of   men,   and   fills   them   with   all   manner   of wickedness,   malice,   unrighteousness.   He   fills   them   with   the   spirit   of   hell.   “Why hath   Satan   filled   thine   heart?”    said   Peter   to Ananias   (Acts   5:3).   Satan   had   filled   his heart   to   lie   to   the   Holy   Ghost .   Thus,   he   instilled   these   thoughts   of   gain   by   robbery and   murder   into   the   Sabeans   and   the   Chaldeans,   and   filled   their   hearts   brim   full. Then,    they    resolve    to    act    it    out    with    the    hand,    and    so    they    become    Satan’s instruments. Lastly,   Satan   can   do   somewhat   more   than   inject   and   suggest   such   thoughts:   he   can mightily    irritate    and    provoke,    and    stir    up    the    heart    to    be    willing    to    give entertainment   to   such   a   motion.   He   not   only   barely   presents   his   temptation,   but vehemently   backs   it,   and   will   give   no   rest   to   a   man   until   he   yields   it.   So   it   is   said   of his   tempting   David,   that   Satan   stood   up   and   provoked   David   to   number   the   people    (I Chron.   21:1);   he   did   not   only   inject   such   a   thought   to   David,   but   he   provoked    him;   he never   let   him   alone,   but   followed   him   and   solicited   him   to   it.   This   Satan   can   do,   and yet   he   cannot   press    men   to   take   up   arms   for   his   designs.   All   those   that   fight   under Satan’s   colors   are   volunteers .   He   never   constrains   any,   neither   can   he;   the   will   is never   forced   by   him,   neither   can   it   be.   Satan   uses   no   compulsion   beyond   a   moral persuasion   well   set   on;   he   can   but   vex   us   (as   the   Midianites   did   Israel)   with   his wiles. He is an Ahitophel , not an Alexander ; a Machiavel , not a Caesar . This   is   the   manner   of   Satan’s   working   in   the   children   of   disobedience.   All   these things   he   does;   yet   I   believe   he   is   not   always   put   to   do   all   these   upon   everyone   over whom   he   prevails.   Some   come   to   this   work   on   easier   terms   than   others.   He   needs not   provoke   and   solicit   them;   a   suggestion   wins   them.   The   very   sight   of   an   object overcomes   them:   Yea   some   stand   ready   offering   their   service   to   Satan,   and   selling themselves to work any wickedness he will employ them in. I   have   shown   you   the   most   that   Satan   can   do;   I   conceive   he   had   not   much   to   do with   these   Sabeans   to   enlist   them   to   this   war:   That   which   is   in   motion   is   easily   moved. And   as   we   say,   he   must   needs   run   whom   the   devil   drives ;   so   the   devil   needs   not   drive them who are running of themselves. It   being   opened,   what   these   Sabeans   were,   and   how   they   came   into   the   service   of Satan,   what   made   them   take   up   arms,   as   it   were,   in   his   cause,   we   may   observe hence: First,   that   wicked   and   ungodly   men,   while   they   satisfy   their   own   lusts,   are   but   doing   the work   of   Satan   and   executing   his   designs.    These   Sabeans,   though   they   did   not   think   it, yet   they   came   upon   Satan’s   errand.   So   God,   when   he   justly   uses   wicked   men   to punish   or   correct   his   people,   they   do   their   own   will,   and   they   have   their   own   way; but   God   has   his   way   too;   he   overrules   them   to   effect   his   business   at   that   time.   So   it is   said   of   the   King   of Assyria,   “O Assyrian,   the   rod   of   mine   anger,   I   will   send   him against   an   hypocritical   nation,   and   against   the   people   of   my   wrath   will   I   give   him charge.   How   be   it,   he   meaneth   not   so,   neither   doth   his   heart   think   so”    (Isa.   10:5- 7);   he   has   purposes   of   his   own.   So   they   that   are   agitated   by   Satan   and   provoked   by him,   they   think   not   so ;   they   think   not   they   are   doing   the   will   and   work,   the   dirty drudgery   of   Satan,   but   the   truth   is,   they   do   nothing   else   all   the   while.   “You   are   of your   father   the   devil,   and   his   lusts   you   will   do,”    said   Christ   to   the   Jews   (John 8:44);   while   they   do   their   own,   they   fulfill   the   lusts   and   designs   of   Satan.   As   it   is said   in   Revelation:   “The   devil   shall   cast   some   of   you   into   prison”    (Rev.   2:10);   it was   not   the   devil   in   person,   it   was   the   devil   in   his   seconds   or   servants;   and   these men   little   thought   that   they   did   the   devil’s   service   at   that   time.   If   one   should   have come   and   told   them,   you   are   now   doing   the   devil’s   work,   and   undertaking   a   piece of   service   for   him,   you   are   as   so   many   instruments   and   agents   for   hell,   they   would not   have   believed   it.   But   the   truth   is,   it   was   the   devil’s   work,   and   they   did   it   so devilishly,   that   from   both,   it   is   said,   the   devil   did   it;   he   cast   some   of   them   into prison.   It   is   a   fearful   thing   to   persecute   or   oppress   the   people   of   God;   such   in serving their own lusts, are indeed the right hand of Satan; the devil’s hirelings.   (Note:   Satan   could   have   destroyed   all   himself   if   he   pleased.   Good   angels   have mighty   power,   and   so   do   wicked   angels   too,   if   God   will   let   them   alone   to   put   out their   powers.   Therefore,   they   are   called   principalities    and    powers .   Satan   had   leave;   he might have taken what course he would with the estate of Job). Secondly,   forasmuch   as   Satan   will   have   Sabeans   and   Chaldeans   to   afflict   Job’s estate,   note   from   hence,   that   Satan   loves   to   draw   others   to   be   partakers   with   him   in   his designs .   Though   he   can   do   his   work   alone,   yet   he   will   have   man   join   with   him   in   it   if he   can.   And   in   this,   he   imitates   God   himself,   who   has   an   almighty   power,   and   is able   to   do   all   things   alone   if   he   please;   yet,   he   usually   calls   in   instruments.   He   is able   to   convert   alone   by   the   motion   of   his   Spirit,   but   he   will   have   preachers   to convert   by   the   ministry   of   the   Word.   He   is   able   to   protect   his   people   from   their enemies   by   his   own   strength,   yet   he   will   have   armies   mustered   to   do   it   by. And   why does   God   choose   to   work   thus?   There   is   a   double   good   in   it.   He   does   it   that   he   may do   good   two   ways   at   once.   First,   his   creature   is   saved   and   relieved;   that’s   one   good. Secondly,   men   who   are   employed   as   instruments   are   honored   and   respected,   they having   given   help   to   God   in   such   a   cause:   God   gives   them   honor   in   the   eyes   of   all his   servants;   that   is   another   good.   So   Satan,   while   he   sets   men   a-work—Sabeans, Chaldeans   and   other   to   do   mischief   to   Job   or   others   whom   he   afflicts—he   does mischief   to   his   instruments;   he   makes   these   sin   as   he   makes   other   suffer.   If   he   carry on   the   work   alone,   they   suffer,   but   others   do   not   partake   in   the   guilt   of   the   sin;   but now,    when    he    uses    instruments    to    effect    his    wicked    designs,    he    makes    one miserable   and   the   other   wicked.   This   is   one   of   Satan’s   methods,   he   will   work   by means,   and   do   his   business   by   the   hands   of   men,   that   he   may   at   once   do   a   double mischief. Thirdly,   in   that   these   Sabeans   and   Chaldeans   are   observed   in   histories   to   be   a people   given   much   to   robberies   and   spoil,   and   these   are   the   men   whom   Satan   picks out   for   this   business,   observe,   that   Satan   suits   his   temptations   to   man’s   natural   temper and   inclination .   Whensoever   he   tempts,   he   takes   this   advantage,   if   he   can   discover   or obtain   it.   He   is   wiser   then,   to   set   sail   against   wind   and   tide,   to   row   against   the stream.   Therefore,   he   labors   all   he   can,   to   find   which   way   the   stream   of   every   man’s affections   runs,   and   to   what   sins   his   relations,   his   calling   or   his   opportunities,   lay him   most   open   and   obnoxious,   accordingly   he   lays   his   snares   and   spreads   his   net. When   he   meets   with   a   proud   man,   him   he   tempts   with   high   thoughts;   when   he meets   with   a   covetous   man,   him   he   tempts   to   the   love   of   the   world,   he   lays   a   golden bait   of   profit   before   his   eyes.   The   adulterous,   he   leads   to   the   harlot’s   house.   For howsoever   it   be   true,   that   every   man   has   in   him   a   principle   suiting   to   every   sin,   yet it   is   a   truth   too,   that   every   man   is   not   equally   active   for   or   disposed   to   every   sin, and   every   man   has   not   every   particular   sin   predominant   in   him.   Now   Satan,   when he   sees   what   is   predominant   in   any   man,   then   he   fashions   and   frames   a   temptation suitable:   he   perceived   these   Sabeans   were   given   to   rob   and   spoil,   and   he   shows them a desirable booty. “…yea,   they   have   slain   thy   servants   with   the   edge   of   the   sword…”    –   This   is   a further   aggravation   of   the   affliction,   they   did   not   only   fall   upon   Job’s   cattle   and   took them   away,   but   they   slew   his   servants.   A   man’s   servants   are   nearer   to   him   than   his cattle,   than   his   oxen   and   his   asses;   servants   are   next   unto   our   children.   So   that   this was   a   heightening   of   Job’s   sorrow,   not   only   are   your   cattle   gone,   but   your   servants are   slain,   and   they   are   slain    (said   he)   with   the   edge   of   the   sword;    the   word   in   the Hebrew is, they are slain with the mouth of the sword . We   read   in   Scripture   sometimes   of   the   face   of   the   sword ,   and   sometimes   of   the   mouth of   the   sword;    the   Hebrew   is,   they   shall   flee   from   the   face   of   the   sword ,   similar   to   Jer.   25:27. Now,   when   the   Scripture   speaks   of   the   face   of   the   sword ,   it   is   meant   of   war   coming,   or war   preparing   and   approaching.   But   the   mouth   of   the   sword    is   war   inflicted,   war acted.   This   phrase,   the   mouth   of   the   sword   is   used   to   show   that   the   sword   is   a   great devourer:    “I    will    make    mine    arrows    drunk    with    blood,    and    my    sword    shall devour   flesh”    (Deut.   32:42).   War   has   a   terrible   face;   it   has   a   wide   mouth   and   sharp teeth;   they   have   slain   thy   servants   with   the   edge   of   the   sword ;   the   mouth   of   the   sword has devoured them. At   this   day,   we   have   great   cause   to   have   our   hearts   deeply   affected   with   this   thing. There   has   been   (as   it   were)   the   face   of   the   sword   a   great   while   looking   towards   us, but   now   there   is   the   very   mouth   of   the   sword   gaping   at   us;   yea,   tearing,   gnawing, and   devouring   the   flesh   and   bones   of   thousands   amongst   us.   Where   the   sword comes,   it   will   devour;   war   is   a   great   judgement,   one   of   God’s   sore   judgements,   the sorest   of   all   God’s   outward   judgements.   David   chooses   the   pestilence   rather   than the   sword;   the   pestilence   is   a   devourer,   but   the   sword   is   a   greater   devourer.   And though   the   prophet   Jeremiah   in   his   Lamentations   makes   famine   a   sorer   judgement than   the   sword,   “They   that   be   slain   with   the   sword   are   better   than   they   that   be slain   with   hunger”    (Lam.   4:9);   yet,   the   sword   is   in   this   worse   than   famine,   because usually   it   is   the   cause   of   famine.   The   sword   cuts   off   food,   the   support   of   man’s   life, as   well   as   the   life   of   man.   While   the   sword   is   making   itself   fat,   it   hath   famine   in   the belly of it. We    need    not    go    to    Jeremiah    or    Josephus    for    the    proof    of    this    in    Jerusalem, Babylonian   or   Roman   desolations,   and   Germany,   bleeding   Ireland   are   near   woeful witnesses   and   spectacles   of   it   at   this   day.   The   sword   has   opened   a   way   for   famine   to enter   also,   and   which   of   the   two   has   eaten   most   flesh,   is   hard   to   determine.   Let   us cry   earnestly   to   God   that   the   mouth   of   the   sword   may   be   stopped,   or   continued open   only   to   devour   those   who   would   devour   the   man   that   is   more   righteous   than they.   Let   us   pray   that   blood   may   be   spared,   or   none   but   corrupt   blood   spilt.   Spare thy   people,   O   Lord.   It   is   (I   confess)   one   of   the   saddest   prognostics   in   my   observation against   this   nation:   that   God   hitherto   has   made   little   difference.   Our   sword   has   not yet   been   taught   from   heaven   to   distinguish   of   men.   Precious   blood   has   been   drawn, and   men   whose   very   hairs   were   all   numbered   (that   is   highly   prized)   by   God,   have been   numbered   among   the   slain.   It   must   satisfy   us   that   the   will   of   God   is   so.   The answer   which   David   gave   Joab’s   messenger   is   good   settling   council   now:   Let   not   this displease   thee      (he   speaks   this   after   the   fall   of   noble   Uriah)   for   the   sword   (not   by accident   but   decree,   not   casually   but   providentially)   devoureth   so   and   such   (as   the Hebrew   language   has   it)   one   as   well   as   another ,   so   we   translate.   It   is   mercy   we   are   not all   consumed   by   this   devourer,   as   in   the   text;   you   may   read   all   the   servants   of   Job were,   excepting   one,   only   one   got   out   of   the   mouth   of   the   sword,   eating   up   all saving   one;   and   he   was   saved,   that   by   the   report   of   this   destructive   sword,   he   might destroy Job himself. “…and   I   only   am   escaped   alone   to   tell   thee.”    –   The   word   in   the   original   is   double: only   I,   I   alone   am   escaped ,   as   if   the   man   should   have   said   between   horror   and amazement,   much   ado   I   had   to   get   away   without   losing   somewhat   of   myself;   I   only singly,   singly   I   got   away   and   escaped.   The   sword   was   very   hungry,   when   but   one man of all Job’s servants escaped the teeth of it. But how came it to pass that this one man escaped? Certainly,   as   I   said   before,   the   hand   of   Satan   was   in   this   also.   For   however   he ordered   and   disposed   all   these   things,   yet   he   let   Satan   work   in   his   circle,   in   his compass   to   contrive   things,   as   he   pleased   himself   the   most   aptly   he   could   imagine, to   afflict   and   trouble   Job;   therefore,   there   is   somewhat   in   it,   no   good   will   (I   believe) to Job, that this one man had the favor of quarter, or the mercy of an escape. It   was   not   out   of   any   compassionate   respect   to   Job   that   one   of   his   servants   came home   alive.   It   was   rather   to   increase   the   affliction   of   Job,   and   for   the   perfecting   of his    sorrows,    this    man    was    not    slain,    in    order    that    Job    might    be    more    deeply wounded.   There   are   two   reasons   which   may   be   assigned   why   one   man   escaped   out of every one of these calamites. First ,   that   the   report   of   this   affliction   might   come   suddenly   to   him.   A   man   that escapes   out   of   such   a   danger   needs   no   driving;   his   fear   will   add   wings   to   his   feet;   he will run home apace. Secondly ,   for   the   certainty   of   it.   Reports   fly   abroad;   they   may   be   false;   fame   is   a   liar. Job   might   have   had   such   reports   from   his   neighbors   in   the   country;   all   your   cattle   are seized   upon,   and   all   your   servants   are   slain .   Job   may   sleight   it   and   say,   this   might   be   but a   rumor;   I   give   no   credit   to   it.    Therefore,   Satan   lets   one   of   his   own   servants   come frighted   home   with   the   news;   one   that   was   there;   one   that   was   an   eyewitness;   one that   Job   knew;   one   that   had   no   reason,   much   less   boldness,   to   bring   false   tales   to him.   In   this   way,   the   report   comes   speedily,   so   that   Job’s   heart   might   be   smitten presently.   It   is   some   abatement   of   an   evil   to   have   but   a   color   of   doubt   of   it.    If   we   can   but lay   hold   of   any   circumstance   which   renders   an   evil   report   improbable,   and   may   for a   while   strengthen   our   unbelief   of   it;   we   may   in   that   interim   get   more   strength   of faith   to   bear   it,   when   we   see   it   is   certain   and   unquestionable.   There   was   no   mercy   in such a sparing. And   we   may   observe   out   of   it,   that   which   Solomon   speaks   of   the   mercies   of   the wicked   is   most   true   of   Satan’s:   The   very   tender   mercies   of   Satan   are   cruel;    the   best   of   his mercies,   his   sparings   are   woundings;   he   never   spares   but   with   an   intent   to   do further   hurt.   Job’s   afflictions   had   not   gone   so   deep,   if   this   man   had   not   been   left   to bring the message.  This article is taken from:  Caryl, Joseph.  An Exposition with Practical Observations upon the Book of Job. London: G. Miller, 1644.  A PDF file of this book can be downloaded, free of charge, at http://www.ClassicChristianLibrary.com            
© 1994-2017, Scott Sperling
[Here we continue a reprint of a small portion of Joseph Caryl’s study in Job.  Mr. Caryl wrote twelve volumes on the book of Job.  His study is a great example of how deep one can dig into the truths of the Bible.]   A Study by Joseph Caryl (1644) Job 1:13-15 (part 2) - The Time of Affliction   13 And    there    was    a    day    when    his    sons    and    his daughters   were   eating   and   drinking   wine   in   their eldest     brother’s     house: 14 And     there     came     a messenger    unto    Job,    and    said,    The    oxen    were plowing,    and    the    asses    feeding    beside    them. 15 And   the   Sabeans   fell   upon   them,   and   took   them away;   yea,   they   have   slain   the   servants   with   the edge   of   the   sword;   and   I   only   am   escaped   alone   to tell thee. (KJV)   “And   the   Sabeans   fell   upon   them…”    –   The   Hebrew is,   Saba   fell   upon   them,    the   country   put   for   the   people: Saba   for   the   Sabeans .   As   we   use   to   say,   Spain    made   war, and   France    made   war,   that   is,   the   Spaniards    made   war, or   the   French    made   war,   so   it   is   such   an   expression; Saba  fell upon them, that is, the people inhabiting Saba . “…fell   upon   them…”    –   The   word   denotes   a   mighty violence;   they   came   upon   them   as   from   above;   they came   powering   down   upon   them   like   a   storm.   There   is such   a   phrase   in   war,   when   they   go   violently   upon   a place,   they   are   said   to   storm   the   place,   to   storm   the gates   of   a   castle   or   of   a   city;   so   here,   they   fell   upon them,   that   is,   they   came   violently   upon   them   like   a storm.   In   Prov.   1:27,   destruction   is   described   to   come upon wicked men like a whirlwind . The   Sabeans    were   a   people   (as   it   is   concluded   by   most interpreters)   inhabiting   Arabia   felix ,   near   the   country where   Job   dwelt. And   for   the   manners   of   this   people,   it is    observed    by    historians,    that    they    were    a    people famous    only    for    robberies,    a    people    that    lived    by pillage   and   by   plundering   of   their   neighbors.   Such   a people   they   were;   these   Sabeans    fell   upon   them,   they took   away   thy   cattle,   and   have   slain   thy   servants   with   the edge of the sword . Here    it    may    be    questioned:    how    or    why    these Sabeans   at   such   a   time   should   fall   upon   the   estate   of Job?   What   hurt   had   Job   done   them?   Job   lived   in   a   fair way   with   all   his   neighbors,   and   kept   good   quarter   and correspondence   with   them;   he   was   not   a   man   of   war   or contention.   How   then   comes   it   to   pass   that   these   fell upon   Job’s   estate   and   took   it   away,   and   upon   that   day too, in this nick of time? As   when   the   widow   of   Tekoah   had   told   a   fair   tale   to David   about   the   bringing   back   of   Absalom,   the   king asked   her,   Is   not   the   hand   of   Joab   with   thee   in   all   this?    So when    you    see    such    men,    Sabeans    and    Chaldeans falling   upon   the   estate   of   Job,   you   may   demand,   Is   not the    hand    of    Satan    in    all    this?     Yes,    no    doubt.    These Sabeans   fell   upon   Job’s   estate,   but   Satan   first   fell   upon the    Sabeans,    and    by    strong    temptations    provoked them to do this service. But   how   could   he   prevail   upon   the   Sabeans,   that   they should come and do his business, now at this time? The   Apostle   tells   us,   that   wicked   men   are   led   captive   by Satan    at    his    will    (see    II    Tim.    2:26) .     Satan    leads    men captive   at   his   will,   while   they   are,   as   they   conceive, conquerors,   riding   in   triumph,   doing   their   own   will. These   Sabeans   came   to   execute   their   own   designs,   but Satan   had   a   design   upon   them:   he   brought   them   thus to spoil the estate of Job. But   what   could   Satan   do?   How   could   Satan   prevail with   these?   Can   he   force   men   to   be   his   instruments,   to execute   his   designs   upon   the   people   of   God?   Or   has   he Sabeans    and    Chaldeans,    nations    and    people    at    his beck, or under his command? No,   Satan   cannot   force   or   compel   them   against   their wills,   but   as   that   scripture   says,   he   leads   them   captive   at his   will ;   and,   as   it   says   in   another   scripture,   he   is   a   prince of   the   power   of   the   air,   and   he   works   in   the   children   of disobedience;     yea,    he    works    like    a    prince,    mightily    and powerfully    in    the    children    of    disobedience    (see    Eph.    2). Though    he    cannot    constrain    them,    yet    he    can    work mightily in them to effect what he has to do. But   how   does   he   bring   them   about   thus   readily   and suddenly to act what he projects. Thus:   First,   he   finds   out   the   temper   and   disposition   of the   persons.   That   Satan   can   do.   He   is   a   great   naturalist , and   has   a   great   deal   of   help   to   his   skill,   long   experience , by     both     he     can     go     very     far     in     discovering     the dispositions   of   men,   which   way   their   spirits   tend;   and he   found   out   that   these   Sabeans   were   a   people   given   to robbery   and   spoil,   and   so   fit   ministers   for   him   to   work by in his design of spoiling the estate of Job. Secondly,   when   he   found   out   the   natural   temper   or state   of   a   man’s   heart,   he   can   lay   a   bait   of   temptation suitable   to   that   inclination   and   desire.   Finding   out   a people   given   to   spoil,   he   presently   sets   before   them rich   spoils,   ripe   for   the   taking.   See,   yonder   is   a   brave prize   for   you;   yonder   is   a   rich   man;   his   estate   will   be good   plunder;   yonder   are   oxen   and   asses;   there’s   good booty   to   be   had.   Thus   finding   out   their   disposition,   he presents   or   holds   up   an   object   to   them   which   hits   it fully. Thirdly,    Satan    deals    with    man    to    draw    him    to    his purpose   a   degree   further,   by   injecting   and   casting   into the   mind   the   motion   to   do   this.   He   not   only   presents such-and-such   a   thing,   such-and-such   an   opportunity, but   he   casts   in   and   injects   the   motion.   As   it   is   said   of Judas,   that   the   devil   put   it   into   his   heart   betray   Christ   (John   13:2).   The   devil   being   a   spirit   has   access   to   our spirits,   and   can   convey   himself   into   them   and   instill   his suggestions.   As   the   Lord   Christ   did   breathe   upon   his disciples,    and    so    they    received    the    Holy    Ghost    and were    filled    with    the    Spirit,    so    Satan    breathes    filthy suggestions   into   the   spirits   of   men,   and   fills   them   with all   manner   of   wickedness,   malice,   unrighteousness.   He fills    them    with    the    spirit    of    hell.    “Why    hath    Satan filled   thine   heart?”    said   Peter   to   Ananias   (Acts   5:3). Satan   had   filled   his   heart   to   lie   to   the   Holy   Ghost .   Thus, he    instilled    these    thoughts    of    gain    by    robbery    and murder   into   the   Sabeans   and   the   Chaldeans,   and   filled their   hearts   brim   full.   Then,   they   resolve   to   act   it   out with      the      hand,      and      so      they      become      Satan’s instruments. Lastly,   Satan   can   do   somewhat   more   than   inject   and suggest    such    thoughts:    he    can    mightily    irritate    and provoke,   and   stir   up   the   heart   to   be   willing   to   give entertainment   to   such   a   motion.   He   not   only   barely presents   his   temptation,   but   vehemently   backs   it,   and will   give   no   rest   to   a   man   until   he   yields   it.   So   it   is   said of   his   tempting   David,   that   Satan   stood   up   and   provoked David   to   number   the   people    (I   Chron.   21:1);   he   did   not only   inject   such   a   thought   to   David,   but   he   provoked   him;    he    never    let    him    alone,    but    followed    him    and solicited   him   to   it.   This   Satan   can   do,   and   yet   he   cannot press    men   to   take   up   arms   for   his   designs.   All   those that   fight   under   Satan’s   colors   are   volunteers .   He   never constrains   any,   neither   can   he;   the   will   is   never   forced by   him,   neither   can   it   be.   Satan   uses   no   compulsion beyond   a   moral   persuasion   well   set   on;   he   can   but   vex us   (as   the   Midianites   did   Israel)   with   his   wiles.   He   is an Ahitophel , not an Alexander ; a Machiavel , not a Caesar . This   is   the   manner   of   Satan’s   working   in   the   children of   disobedience.   All   these   things   he   does;   yet   I   believe he   is   not   always   put   to   do   all   these   upon   everyone   over whom   he   prevails.   Some   come   to   this   work   on   easier terms   than   others.   He   needs   not   provoke   and   solicit them;   a   suggestion   wins   them.   The   very   sight   of   an object   overcomes   them:   Yea   some   stand   ready   offering their   service   to   Satan,   and   selling   themselves   to   work any wickedness he will employ them in. I    have    shown    you    the    most    that    Satan    can    do;    I conceive   he   had   not   much   to   do   with   these   Sabeans   to enlist   them   to   this   war:   That   which   is   in   motion   is   easily moved.   And   as   we   say,   he   must   needs   run   whom   the   devil drives ;    so    the    devil    needs    not    drive    them    who    are running of themselves. It   being   opened,   what   these   Sabeans   were,   and   how they   came   into   the   service   of   Satan,   what   made   them take   up   arms,   as   it   were,   in   his   cause,   we   may   observe hence: First,   that   wicked   and   ungodly   men,   while   they   satisfy their    own    lusts,    are    but    doing    the    work    of    Satan    and executing   his   designs.    These   Sabeans,   though   they   did not    think    it,    yet    they    came    upon    Satan’s    errand.    So God,   when   he   justly   uses   wicked   men   to   punish   or correct   his   people,   they   do   their   own   will,   and   they have    their    own    way;    but    God    has    his    way    too;    he overrules   them   to   effect   his   business   at   that   time.   So   it is   said   of   the   King   of   Assyria,   “O   Assyrian,   the   rod   of mine   anger,   I   will   send   him   against   an   hypocritical nation,   and   against   the   people   of   my   wrath   will   I give    him    charge.    How    be    it,    he    meaneth    not    so, neither   doth   his   heart   think   so”    (Isa.   10:5-7);   he   has purposes   of   his   own.   So   they   that   are   agitated   by   Satan and   provoked   by   him,   they   think   not   so ;   they   think   not they   are   doing   the   will   and   work,   the   dirty   drudgery   of Satan,   but   the   truth   is,   they   do   nothing   else   all   the while.   “You   are   of   your   father   the   devil,   and   his   lusts you   will   do,”    said   Christ   to   the   Jews   (John   8:44);   while they   do   their   own,   they   fulfill   the   lusts   and   designs   of Satan.   As   it   is   said   in   Revelation:   “The   devil   shall   cast some   of   you   into   prison”    (Rev.   2:10);   it   was   not   the devil    in    person,    it    was    the    devil    in    his    seconds    or servants;   and   these   men   little   thought   that   they   did   the devil’s   service   at   that   time.   If   one   should   have   come and   told   them,   you   are   now   doing   the   devil’s   work, and   undertaking   a   piece   of   service   for   him,   you   are   as so   many   instruments   and   agents   for   hell,   they   would not   have   believed   it.   But   the   truth   is,   it   was   the   devil’s work,   and   they   did   it   so   devilishly,   that   from   both,   it   is said,   the   devil   did   it;   he   cast   some   of   them   into   prison. It   is   a   fearful   thing   to   persecute   or   oppress   the   people of   God;   such   in   serving   their   own   lusts,   are   indeed   the right hand of Satan; the devil’s hirelings.   (Note:   Satan   could   have   destroyed   all   himself   if   he pleased.   Good   angels   have   mighty   power,   and   so   do wicked   angels   too,   if   God   will   let   them   alone   to   put   out their    powers.    Therefore,    they    are    called    principalities   and    powers .   Satan   had   leave;   he   might   have   taken   what course he would with the estate of Job). Secondly,   forasmuch   as   Satan   will   have   Sabeans   and Chaldeans   to   afflict   Job’s   estate,   note   from   hence,   that Satan   loves   to   draw   others   to   be   partakers   with   him   in   his designs .   Though   he   can   do   his   work   alone,   yet   he   will have   man   join   with   him   in   it   if   he   can.   And   in   this,   he imitates   God   himself,   who   has   an   almighty   power,   and is    able    to    do    all    things    alone    if    he    please;    yet,    he usually   calls   in   instruments.   He   is   able   to   convert   alone by   the   motion   of   his   Spirit,   but   he   will   have   preachers to   convert   by   the   ministry   of   the   Word.   He   is   able   to protect    his    people    from    their    enemies    by    his    own strength,   yet   he   will   have   armies   mustered   to   do   it   by. And   why   does   God   choose   to   work   thus?   There   is   a double   good   in   it.   He   does   it   that   he   may   do   good   two ways   at   once.   First,   his   creature   is   saved   and   relieved; that’s   one   good.   Secondly,   men   who   are   employed   as instruments   are   honored   and   respected,   they   having given   help   to   God   in   such   a   cause:   God   gives   them honor   in   the   eyes   of   all   his   servants;   that   is   another good.   So   Satan,   while   he   sets   men   a-work—Sabeans, Chaldeans   and   other   to   do   mischief   to   Job   or   others whom   he   afflicts—he   does   mischief   to   his   instruments; he   makes   these   sin   as   he   makes   other   suffer.   If   he   carry on    the    work    alone,    they    suffer,    but    others    do    not partake   in   the   guilt   of   the   sin;   but   now,   when   he   uses instruments   to   effect   his   wicked   designs,   he   makes   one miserable   and   the   other   wicked.   This   is   one   of   Satan’s methods,   he   will   work   by   means,   and   do   his   business by   the   hands   of   men,   that   he   may   at   once   do   a   double mischief. Thirdly,    in    that    these    Sabeans    and    Chaldeans    are observed    in    histories    to    be    a    people    given    much    to robberies    and    spoil,    and    these    are    the    men    whom Satan   picks   out   for   this   business,   observe,   that   Satan suits     his     temptations     to     man’s     natural     temper     and inclination .     Whensoever     he     tempts,     he     takes     this advantage,   if   he   can   discover   or   obtain   it.   He   is   wiser then,   to   set   sail   against   wind   and   tide,   to   row   against the    stream.    Therefore,    he    labors    all    he    can,    to    find which   way   the   stream   of   every   man’s   affections   runs, and    to    what    sins    his    relations,    his    calling    or    his opportunities,    lay    him    most    open    and    obnoxious, accordingly    he    lays    his    snares    and    spreads    his    net. When   he   meets   with   a   proud   man,   him   he   tempts   with high   thoughts;   when   he   meets   with   a   covetous   man, him    he    tempts    to    the    love    of    the    world,    he    lays    a golden   bait   of   profit   before   his   eyes.   The   adulterous,   he leads   to   the   harlot’s   house.   For   howsoever   it   be   true, that   every   man   has   in   him   a   principle   suiting   to   every sin,   yet   it   is   a   truth   too,   that   every   man   is   not   equally active   for   or   disposed   to   every   sin,   and   every   man   has not    every    particular    sin    predominant    in    him.    Now Satan,   when   he   sees   what   is   predominant   in   any   man, then   he   fashions   and   frames   a   temptation   suitable:   he perceived   these   Sabeans   were   given   to   rob   and   spoil, and he shows them a desirable booty. “…yea,   they   have   slain   thy   servants   with   the   edge   of the   sword…”    –   This   is   a   further   aggravation   of   the affliction,   they   did   not   only   fall   upon   Job’s   cattle   and took   them   away,   but   they   slew   his   servants.   A   man’s servants   are   nearer   to   him   than   his   cattle,   than   his   oxen and   his   asses;   servants   are   next   unto   our   children.   So that   this   was   a   heightening   of   Job’s   sorrow,   not   only   are your   cattle   gone,   but   your   servants   are   slain,   and   they are   slain    (said   he)   with   the   edge   of   the   sword;    the   word   in the Hebrew is, they are slain with the mouth of the sword . We    read    in    Scripture    sometimes    of    the    face    of    the sword ,   and   sometimes   of   the   mouth   of   the   sword;    the Hebrew    is,    they    shall    flee    from    the    face    of    the    sword , similar   to   Jer.   25:27.   Now,   when   the   Scripture   speaks   of the   face   of   the   sword ,   it   is   meant   of   war   coming,   or   war preparing   and   approaching.   But   the   mouth   of   the   sword   is   war   inflicted,   war   acted.   This   phrase,   the   mouth   of the   sword   is   used   to   show   that   the   sword   is   a   great devourer:    “I    will    make    mine    arrows    drunk    with blood,    and    my    sword    shall    devour    flesh”     (Deut. 32:42).   War   has   a   terrible   face;   it   has   a   wide   mouth   and sharp   teeth;   they   have   slain   thy   servants   with   the   edge   of the sword ; the mouth of the sword has devoured them. At   this   day,   we   have   great   cause   to   have   our   hearts deeply   affected   with   this   thing.   There   has   been   (as   it were)    the    face    of    the    sword    a    great    while    looking towards   us,   but   now   there   is   the   very   mouth   of   the sword     gaping     at     us;     yea,     tearing,     gnawing,     and devouring   the   flesh   and   bones   of   thousands   amongst us.   Where   the   sword   comes,   it   will   devour;   war   is   a great   judgement,   one   of   God’s   sore   judgements,   the sorest   of   all   God’s   outward   judgements.   David   chooses the   pestilence   rather   than   the   sword;   the   pestilence   is   a devourer,   but   the   sword   is   a   greater   devourer.   And though    the    prophet    Jeremiah    in    his    Lamentations makes    famine    a    sorer    judgement    than    the    sword, “They   that   be   slain   with   the   sword   are   better   than they   that   be   slain   with   hunger”    (Lam.   4:9);   yet,   the sword   is   in   this   worse   than   famine,   because   usually   it is   the   cause   of   famine.   The   sword   cuts   off   food,   the support   of   man’s   life,   as   well   as   the   life   of   man.   While the   sword   is   making   itself   fat,   it   hath   famine   in   the belly of it. We   need   not   go   to   Jeremiah   or   Josephus   for   the   proof of   this   in   Jerusalem,   Babylonian   or   Roman   desolations, and     Germany,     bleeding     Ireland     are     near     woeful witnesses   and   spectacles   of   it   at   this   day.   The   sword has   opened   a   way   for   famine   to   enter   also,   and   which of   the   two   has   eaten   most   flesh,   is   hard   to   determine. Let    us    cry    earnestly    to    God    that    the    mouth    of    the sword    may    be    stopped,    or    continued    open    only    to devour   those   who   would   devour   the   man   that   is   more righteous   than   they.   Let   us   pray   that   blood   may   be spared,    or    none    but    corrupt    blood    spilt.    Spare    thy people,    O    Lord.    It    is    (I    confess)    one    of    the    saddest prognostics   in   my   observation   against   this   nation:   that God   hitherto   has   made   little   difference.   Our   sword   has not   yet   been   taught   from   heaven   to   distinguish   of   men. Precious   blood   has   been   drawn,   and   men   whose   very hairs   were   all   numbered   (that   is   highly   prized)   by   God, have   been   numbered   among   the   slain.   It   must   satisfy us   that   the   will   of   God   is   so.   The   answer   which   David gave   Joab’s   messenger   is   good   settling   council   now:   Let not   this   displease   thee      (he   speaks   this   after   the   fall   of noble   Uriah)   for   the   sword   (not   by   accident   but   decree, not   casually   but   providentially)   devoureth   so   and   such (as   the   Hebrew   language   has   it)   one   as   well   as   another , so   we   translate.   It   is   mercy   we   are   not   all   consumed   by this    devourer,    as    in    the    text;    you    may    read    all    the servants   of   Job   were,   excepting   one,   only   one   got   out   of the   mouth   of   the   sword,   eating   up   all   saving   one;   and he   was   saved,   that   by   the   report   of   this   destructive sword, he might destroy Job himself. “…and   I   only   am   escaped   alone   to   tell   thee.”    –   The word   in   the   original   is   double:   only   I,   I   alone   am   escaped , as   if   the   man   should   have   said   between   horror   and amazement,    much    ado    I    had    to    get    away    without losing   somewhat   of   myself;   I   only   singly,   singly   I   got away   and   escaped.   The   sword   was   very   hungry,   when but one man of all Job’s servants escaped the teeth of it. But how came it to pass that this one man escaped? Certainly,   as   I   said   before,   the   hand   of   Satan   was   in this    also.    For    however    he    ordered    and    disposed    all these   things,   yet   he   let   Satan   work   in   his   circle,   in   his compass   to   contrive   things,   as   he   pleased   himself   the most   aptly   he   could   imagine,   to   afflict   and   trouble   Job; therefore,    there    is    somewhat    in    it,    no    good    will    (I believe)    to    Job,    that    this    one    man